This document describes the biology of Triticum aestivum L. em Thell. (bread wheat), with particular reference to the Australian environment, cultivation and use. Information included relates to the taxonomy and origins of cultivated T. aestivum, general descriptions of its morphology, reproductive biology, development, biochemistry, biotic and abiotic interactions. This document also addresses the potential for gene transfer to occur to closely related species. The purpose of this document is to provide baseline information about the parent organism in risk assessments of genetically modified T. aestivum that may be released into the Australian environment.