This document describes the biology of Rosa spp. with emphasis on the Hybrid Tea rose (Rosa x hybrida), and particular reference to the Australian environment, and cultivation for cut-flowers. Information included relates to the taxonomy and origins of cultivated roses, general descriptions of their morphology, reproductive biology, development, biochemistry, biotic and abiotic interactions, toxicity, allergenicity and weediness. This document also addresses the potential for gene transfer to occur to closely related species. The purpose of this document is to inform risk assessment of genetically modified Hybrid Tea roses that may be released into the Australian environment.